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The realm of Electromagnetic waves and dynamics of space expansion

 © Allan Webber (B.Sc, Grad Dip Ed Admin) - 2017


Cosmic beginnings

Three Cosmic layers - Dark Matter, Energy, Observable CosmosTwo of the modern enigmas of our universe, dark matter and dark energy are well known but they become less mysterious when seen as reflections of the parental pool from which our universe evolved.

In seeking answers to the mechanics of our universe it is essential we recognize its evolutionary nature and the inviolable twin pillars of all evolution; the principles of continuity and conservation.

And I postulate it is these basic principles that imply dark energy and dark matter are hidden overlays holding components vital to reconciling the properties of our physical universe with those of the source from which everything formed.

The above premise provides the foundation for the cosmic model used in this paper.

These type of overlays self evidently aren't totally isolated and interact with our universe via resonant interfaces. Critically, the observed interfaces of EMWs and mass-space play vital roles in the dynamics keeping our universe on its evolutionary path.

Entanglement & spooky behavior in the Universe.

Einstein’s phrase “spooky action at a distance” has become synonymous with one of the most famous episodes in the history of physics—his battle with Bohr in the 1930s over the completeness of quantum mechanics.

Einstein’s weapons in this battle were thought experiments that he designed to highlight what he believed were the inadequacies of the new theory.

The most famous of these is the EPR paradox, announced in 1935 and named after its inventors Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen.

It involves a pair of particles linked by the strange quantum property of entanglement (a word coined much later). Entanglement occurs when two particles are so deeply linked that they share the same existence. In the language of quantum mechanics, they are described by the same mathematical relation known as a wave function.

Entanglement arises naturally when two particles are created at the same point and instant in space, for example.

Entangled particles can become widely separated in space. But even so, the mathematics implies that a measurement on crucial defining attributes immediately impacts the other, regardless of the distance between them.

Einstein and his colleagues pointed out that according to special relativity, this was impossible and therefore, quantum mechanics must be wrong, or at least incomplete. Einstein famously called it spooky action at a distance.

The EPR paradox stumped Bohr and was not resolved until 1964, long after Einstein’s death. CERN physicist John Bell resolved it by thinking of entanglement as an entirely new kind of phenomenon, which he termed “nonlocal.”

The basic idea here is to think about the transfer of information. Entanglement allows one particle to instantaneously influence another but not in a way that allows classical information to travel faster than light. This resolved the paradox with special relativity but left much of the mystery intact. These days, the curious nature of entanglement is the subject of intense focus in labs around the world
extract from MIT Technology Review 2012
Dark Energy is an eternal zone consisting of in situ markers recording space transferred to our universe plus residual space units inherited at the instant of the Big Bang event that are yet to be transferred.

The above zone overlays the space of our universe but is isolated from human experience because of the lack of a time component for space.

And correspondingly the Dark Matter is an eternal zone in which residual fermions and leptons abound in compacted space together with time-relevant matter-transfer markers.

This zone also overlays the entire universe. It too is isolated from human experience but in this case it is because of the lack of a space dimension.

I would argue such a scheme is mandatory for the principle of conservation apparent within the physical universe to remain true when space and time are included as fundamental parts of the universe.

And these two zones are fundamental having a common origin to mass and energy at the instant of the Big Bang.

The conservation aspect is maintained by the nature of space-time and the shared interfaces between the zones. Not only do the two hidden zones provide the growth resources for space-time but the accounting markers essential for the same laws to apply to them all.

However it is the fundamentally different space, time and space-time properties that make it difficult for space-time creatures such as us to have much direct interaction. It is only in the modern era that scientists have observed anomalies between forces and the energy and matter content of the universe. This has led them to introduce the little understood concepts of Dark Energy and Dark matter.

But these hidden zones need the mechanics of entanglement in order that they operate in a harmony that gives accountability of both place and function in each interconnected realm. Entanglement is what makes them accounting overlays as well as sources for space, matter, energy and time.

In accordance with the forgoing arguments I postulate that the entanglement that results in space expansion arises by photons having a presence in two realms. One of these is hidden to us but it holds the history of that photon as it propagates through our realm of space and time.

Currently many of the properties of light are explained by accrediting light with being both a wave and a particle. There is no rationale provided other than it works.

The photon spacon model I propose in this discourse achieves the same end with the spacon and its location replacing the particle concept. However because the new concepts arise out of an evolutionary process where conservation and continuity are the guides it is fair to say they have a rationale. It is that rationale I set out in the following presentation.

In my scheme the path of the photon is created for it by a propagation mechanism rather than it travelling through already existing points in space. So propagation of EMWs results in space expansion. The path is the sequence of generation rather than a plot of the journey.Entangled realms behind spacon dynamics

Importantly it is the propagation event that enables the mapping of each photons existence in the space-time setting of our universe.

And the mapping and path creation happens by spacons (elementary units of space) being issued through a space-time location interface.  

This same transfer mechanism leads to the speed of the photon being determined not by the laws of motion in our universe but by the constant rate of spacon issuance within the mapping realm. For this to happen there is no need for a time vector only a periodic mode of time.

The ongoing transfer of spacons in the Dark Energy zone can generate an unchanging pulse determined by the static bounds of this zone.
This generation basis gives the reason why the speed of photons is observed as being constant in a vacuum within our observable universe.

To understand the way in which this might have arisen within the currently accepted framework of cosmology it is helpful to show the likely evolutionary path of our universe.

The evolutionary properties of the hidden realms.

Continuity in the perspective of the past requires that each step in any change be traceable back to the parent source while conservation requires that the parental attributes be fully distributed amongst the progeny.

In this context the conservation role that space expansion plays in the phenomenon of fields becomes apparent.

Fields are part of space in that they overlay it and as space expands the nature of that field changes. Hence it is a relevant question to ask how space expansion by addition of spacons adjusts the field contained within both the existent and the new.

To reflect the known nature of fields expansion must produce change that reaches the furthest points in the universe. And it does it instantaneously otherwise there would be continuous waves generated by the expansion and the different points in the universe would have time lags. Or would they? There is no wave produced if the field is that wave and is already reflecting historical expansion.

Field related agents such as the graviton are then fossils recording the history of the binding forces impact on space within an expansionary space-time system. In their current setting they are the deformed remnant product of the event that transformed energy into bodies of mass and charge.

However this produces another problem because the field dies with transformation of the causative agent. Gravity fields diminish or disappear when matter is converted to energy or vice versa. The same is true when two charges combine. There is therefore a wave in such circumstances but what is its speed?

A large part of our knowledge about mass transforming into energy comes from events that were once remote from everyday life. Modern science experiments conducted in particle accelerators offers the major means through which humankind tries to understand their effect. But there are less interventionist observations derived from events such as nuclear events within the core of stars and black holes.

However the ability to study the reverse process, the production of mass from pure energy has until recent times been outside the ability of human endeavors. The energy required to produce a minute amount of matter is immense. The major source for supporting the bilateral aspects of Einstein's most famous equation E=mc2 has been the observation of gamma ray bursts which are currently the biggest type of explosion in the universe.

Yet this phenomenon of energy conversion into matter is at the heart of the creation act of this universe. It is this style of event that is accepted as the agency in play at the very first stages of the Big Bang. The creation from energy of matter and its accompanying gravitons doesn't happen on an ongoing basis.

Evolution of spacon, mass-energy, space-timeContinuity and conservation imply that the conditions at the beginning of time reflect the boundary properties of the parental source as some part of it underwent a significant phase change.

Therefore the parenting source of our university was and remains an intensity energy state well above that of a plasma.

The energy state demonstrated in the Bi Bang event is well above the dominant range in our universe and therefore has very high frequencies and very short wavelengths. It is this that makes it difficult for us who live in this universe to reproduce the conditions that existed at the initial stages of its creation. Yet when it occurred it transformed a massive but finite part of the pre-universe environment from which our universe arose.

We can reasonably conclude that within this source all the elementary particles observed by modern science existed in a volatile state rapidly forming and being destroyed, The concept of time as a product of interlinked sequences where order prevails was therefore absent.

Additionally, the concept of space as a time-related condition essential for the persistent existence of matter was also missing. These conditions make it reasonable to call this an energy state devoid of time, space and mass; it was an inferno.

The trigger point for the change that enabled our universe could then have been the random association of vast quantities of transient short-lived large mass quarks. It is the scale as well as the attributes of this setting that most likely caused the explosion in the number of photons since there would have been a proportionate destruction of newly formed particles.

This would have taken place within a localized zone thereby defining the contents and initial conditions of our universe without substantial change to the state of high energy chaos of the parental source. And chaos in a different form would still have prevailed in the emerging localized zone that we call our universe. But entanglement was both possible and necessary for the emergence of the concepts that define our observable universe.

The relationship between space and time is a form of entanglement as is that between mass and energy. And these twinned pairs are themselves entangled giving rise to the platform within which the universe could evolve. At the commencement of the universe space-time arose as an evolution of the pre-universe equivalent of space. Adjacency and cohesion meant a term such as space could now be applied to what was an extreme chaotic energy state. It is this that formed primeval matter and the gluons and bosons were essential parts of that process.

The Properties of the zones created at the start of our Cosmos.

Cosmic creation Model

    - Conservation and continuity apply to all phases of the universe
       including its pre-history.

    - feedback mechanisms offered essential control over the
      evolution of the universe.

    - Evolution of mass, space, time and space-time distinguishes our
      universe from its origin.

    - Our universe's evolutionary origin requires a parallel occupancy
      of zones in which reside conservation elements.

    - There are three overlapping realms derived from the pre-history
          1.Our Universe of mass, space, time &
          2. two hidden (dark) realms carrying the remnant
             components of the pre-history source.

    - These overlapping realms are interfaced through a conservation
       map based on pre-history space.

    - The conservation map contains re-assignable space and
      interface points to space assigned to the other realm.

    - Interface points are of two types linking either matter-energy or

    - Protons and electrons give the stable base for the mechanics of
      matter in our universes evolution.

Relevant Cosmic values:

Top Quarks created by proton and antiproton collision require each to reach an energy level of 90 GeV.. This sets the lower threshold of average cosmic energy in the pre-history zone from which our universe began. (Temp eqiv 1.16e13 x 90 = 1.0e15 K )

For the largest stable atoms to form, energy density must fall below 1.8GeV (largest binding energy of known atoms i.e. 2.0e13 K).
The beginning of the universe involved a confinement of variant elementary forms within a zone that would endure.

Although we space-time creatures cannot easily perceive the pre-universe or most of its processes we can expect that it involves many of the processes that mankind knows. It is likely that quantum mechanics plays a prominent role.

It is possible the agents that bound the the foundational elementary forms caused the fundamental elements to converge by contraction of the zone in which they occurred. The conservation result of such a contraction could well have initiated the transferring of expansionary space into our universe via a photon spacon propagation mechanism.

But the contraction of space with increasing mass is indicative of an increase in dynamic energy intensity. Such a sequence in a chaotic context will eventually take events to a trigger point that will moderate and terminate the initiating condition. Hence a feedback mechanism stabilizes what is an otherwise infinitely destructive trend.

For moderation to occur a decrease in energy intensity must follow within the chaotic zone lowering it once again below the trigger point . This sequence is consistent with the idea of a temperature based change in state that enabled the existence of our physical universe.

And the creative act lies in both the start and end points of such feedback loops within a zone of chaotic energy.

It is by extreme temperature trigger mechanisms causing thermal energy to transform into mass equivalence that persistent matter came into being. Mass, space and time were first interlinked when a sequence of similar type to that suggested above manifested itself.

Within the limited ability of humankind to reproduce such events scientific experiments and cosmic observation indicate creation of matter from energy is an event restricted to the thermal conditions indicated above. And in addition observation of such events confirm that the newly generated aspects of matter come in the instant following the reaching of the extreme thermal trigger point. It is this that has led to assign the smallest of time intervals linked to large quark decays to the duration of the Big Bang.

However scientist have concluded that nearly all gravitons were formed in the transition period preceding the Big Bang. And we can reasonably conclude they are a boundary effect reflecting the complex interaction of the forces binding matter. We can do so because conservation principles require their presence to redress the compaction of space taking place during the creation of matter. In the creation of matter from an intense energy zone we can reasonably deduce that the realm previously occupied by the transformed energy is depleted by that same amount.

This emptied space then becomes the source of the universes expansion; and in it will be the elementary essence scientists have called gravitons. This space is of the mass-free type in which bosons (and hence photons) travel and as such a matter-free zone can be called Bosonic space. And it differs by function from the compact space that contains matter. The origin of Matter provides the reason or difference. It is the result of interactions between fermions and cohesive agents such as gluons. Logically this different space where mass exists can be called Fermionic space.

The rules regulating events within these species will differ because of the attributes consigned to them by their formation. And the mechanics will differ. In the space-time zone we know as our physical universe Newtonian laws of motion apply while in fermionic space bosons obey quantum rules and bosonic space has the laws of EMWs.
So at the beginning the universe becomes separated from the parent source by taking on space-time dimensions. And in so doing it became isolated from its origin. But conservation, evolution rules and continuity imply it also took with it the whole zone from which it formed. So part of our universe isn't regulated by space-time its a zone hidden to us that holds the aspects not utilized in our formation. It is the realm where the majority of short lived creation and destruction acts preside. It is the Dark Matter zone where is contained the remnant contents of the zone of Chaos from which our universe and Dark Energy zone evolved. Hence the Dark Matter overlay mirrors the content of the parent but with a lower dynamic energy range.

Further details on the relation of the Observable Universe to the Dark Zones.

The zones hidden from our view are not separate from our own. They are overlays containing the complement of matter and energy that were there in the primal chaos from which we came. They are hidden to us because we are space-time creatures and they lack one or other of the space or time components.

Earlier in this site I postulated that the space not occupied by matter (our universes present space content) was initially all in the Dark Energy zone when our universe first emerged.

It is the relationship between this hidden overlay of space and the universe's space occupied by matter that forms the defining interface between these two realms.

And the space that now exists in our realm represents the movement of some of that original remnant into our universe.

This movement has a mechanism that reveals itself within our world and it is based on the photon and its means of propagation. The basis of the mechanism is the transfer of space from the hidden realm to our physical one. This produces a conservation-mandated difference consisting of expansion of space in the observable Universe and relacement of that previously held in the Dark Energy zone with markers.

The Dark Energy hidden zone originally contained all the space holding the chaotic energy minus that which the primal matter of our universe took with it when the initial change of state produced stabilized material. And the transfer of spacons from the hidden zone meant space and time in our universe rapidly became a reality outside the space occupied by material bodies.

But the removal of matter-space destined for our universe from the original source defines a viable interface within the Dark Matter since the surface of each material object has space adjacent to that surface with a definable data bearing location in the hidden zone. So the overlay of these two realms locks each point of space of our matter based universe to the exact points in space of the hidden zone from whence it came.

The marker system together with residual space remains constant under this mechanism and if it any time it were possible to put the space in our universe back into the locations defined by the linked points of the hidden realm the resulting space would always be the same. It would be the space from which both originally came.

If all theses space-points were brought together they would form a sphere with a radius of about 7 x 10-7meters or 0.7 micrometers. This is the size range in which large viruses lie.

Calculation of expansion space size set each second by passage of light over a distance equal to a photons speed.


   Photon density ≈ 1013 per cubic meter

   Universe expansion speed ≈ 70,000 meters/second / megaparsec.
            (1 mega parsec= 3.0857 x 1022 meter; )

  Distance travelled by light in 1 sec ≈ 3 x 108 meters


   Expansion factor E= 70000 x [C / (3.0857 x 1022)] meters
   ≈ 6.8 x 10-11 meters /sec / light-second    
  (where a light second is  the distance travelled in 1 second) 


  Expanded sphere = 1/6 x ∏ x (C+ E )3 where C+ E is diameter

  Expansion volume = original sphere - expanded sphere= 1/6 x ∏   x  ((C+E)3  - C3.

  This reduces to exp vol = 1/6 x ∏ x ( 2 x (C2 x E + C x E2) +E3)

   and where D>>>E then :expanded volume  ≈ 1/6 x ∏ x C^2 x E
   = [1/6 x ∏ x 27 x 10^16 ] x [6.8 x 10-11)
   = 1/6 x ∏ x 27 x 5.6 x 10^5

  and contained photons in a sphere 3 x 108 meters in diameter  
  ≈  1013 x original volume= 1013 x 4/3 x ∏ x C3
  = 1/6 x ∏ x 27 x 1037.

  average space produced per photon = exp volume / contained
 photons hence  ≈[ 1/6 x ∏ x 27 x 5.6 x 10^5 ] / [1/6 x ∏ x 27 x
 i.e. 5.6 x 105  / 10-24

This reduces to approximately 5.6 x (10-19) cubic meters expansion per photon per sec over a distance of 3 x 108 meters.

This provides the interface upon which all else relies and everything we know about our universe can flow from such a connection. By it the space-time of our universe is linked to the historical record of the space from which it formed and in accordance with conservation and continuity laws it must remain so throughout all the interactions that take place via its interfaces.

We know our universe is expanding hence the space in the hidden zone must contract to the same degree and the couriers that make this possible are the elementary particles called photons.

Whenever you look at an object you see it because of matter interacting with photons but photons themselves are never seen. You cannot photograph a photon. Yet by its interactions with matter living things can deduce much about their properties.

The description given above of the invisibility of the photon fits perfectly to the concept of mechanisms held within a hidden zone that interacts with matter.

This mechanism of photonic data markers accompanying spacon transfer feconciles our picture of photons in our cosmos. Its interactions with our universe only take place when it encounters the interface linked to material. But its journey and its path is tied to those linked points defined by earlier transfers of space.

The nature of the hidden zone consists of remnant space and interface points. These interface points are of two kind, those linking to the surface zones of our universe's matter and those linking to the zones of space already transferred to our universe. These interfaces don't occupy space so that in both realms they represent a uniquely located space less channel entry.

The photon's journey in our universe is guided by our universe's ties to the points marked out in the hidden zone as referring to transferred space. Every spacon in our universe is tied at its interface point so the progress of any photon is mapped in the same direction within both realms. The spacon supplied to our universe is the next free space unit enabling that photon's path.

Now residual space in the hidden zone is compacted by all the historical events that have transferred space into our universe. As the process of transfer from the hidden to the visible takes place it will take enable the value of that contraction to be imprinted on the never changing spacon. This spacon transfer from the hidden zone will also cause a further tightening on the remaining hidden space bank. But its arrival in our universe will see an expansion of space that carries the contraction inherited from the hidden realm.

Expansion of the Universe is a local not a universal event.

The hypothesis that the expansion of the universe is not a universal phenomenon but a local event created by the passage of photons implies that space expansion will have a distinct set of measurable properties.

Amongst those factors that act as the fingerprint of this model one of the most important is that space expansion should show local variations. In fact galaxy type clusters with their disc like shape should have more new spacons along that disc's plane than anywhere else.

Variance od space expansion due to photon differences near sourceIt should therefore be possible to see differences in space expansion at similarly distanced locations from the galaxies hub based on the direction of that point. This is also true of measurements made from an internal or external point of a star cluster.

Beyond the presence of dynamic effects this hypothesis implies there are space expansion variances related to the density of photons in any volume of space.

The graphic alongside representing this impact for a galaxy indicates the photon count at points E1, E2 and E3 will vary since they are the sum of the original emission rates diluted by their distance squared.

And there is a further important property since the action of photon-space generation directs all volumes of space towards a constant density of photons. For instance higher photon density will increase local space at a faster rate than its surrounds thereby lowering its own photon density. As a result the expansion rate surrounding a galaxy should converge toward the universal rate as the space-time distance from the hub of the galaxy increases.

And when a galaxy is examined the hypothesis suggests that the expansion rate is greatest along the planes closest to that in which the galaxy lies.

These variances seem applicable to many currently puzzling aspects of space expansion as mentioned in the accompanying article ( ).

Elementary components of the Universe

The possibility outlined above also applies to the explanation of black holes and their retention of photons.

The principles and mechanisms behind the hypothesis of photons passage through space as the generator of new space points is discussed more fully in my website called The theory of Concepts.

At that website there are also papers showing how this model can help explain the mechanics of a black hole and also account for the invariant speed of light in a vacuum.

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