Nostradamus Quatrains Web Site (Concepts)   Allan Webber website Let There Be Light (space expansion)   Eternity Eternity -a practical concept 

Copyright: Allan Webber 2017  B Sc, Grad Dip Ed Admin (Adel Uni)


This site examines the mechanisms available to nature for transforming concepts into the universe we know.

Its basis is the innate patterning that comes via repetitive addition of basic geometric forms.

The model implies that evolution of concepts essential to the building of our Universe require a continuous component capable of bridging discontinuities. This component is presented as a building block using twinned concepts that can evolve into new pairs.

A fundamental conclusion from this work is that the initial phase of our Universe had no time component. space-time evolved out of a phase where duration of continuity-sequences was a natural product of its extension. space-time emerged at the same instant (first) as the other components needed to make our physical universe work.

Another fundamental conclusion derived from this model is that the propagation of Electro-Magnetic Waves is based on a random transformation of new points in space-time adjacent to the existing wave surface. These points act as diffusion loci for the wavefront. The remnant loci from each propagation form the additional space seen as expansion of the Universe.

Chapter 1. ROOTS IN CHAOS.

The Beginning of the Big.

I am on the verge of the abyss. When I close my eyes and release all other thoughts I see the eye, a white well shaped eye into which I go then quickly fall asleep.

When I wake there are new thoughts in my head. Like last night when I once more felt that from which our Universe sprang. There is no void.

Fractal Chaos generatorI now know a storm, immense beyond my understanding. This storm is beyond time and size yet holds the turmoil that seeds our Universe.

It has laws but only those of conservation are familiar. It has change, constant furious change, that rages in dimensions that I cannot know.

And yet there is the law of numbers where things add and add repeatedly, where arithmetic-based patterns result from the shaping hand of the infernos' fury.

But time, space, matter and energy all have no meaning in this cauldron as it binds and breaks without any enduring rule or reason.

Yet I also felt our Universe begin as part of that turmoil and it began with the shaping of the zero and the one. I watched through the eye that allows man to go beyond himself and I felt the shaping of a zone that held the pattern of the one, here was the property of continuity separating from the zero-fury of the parent chaos.

And I sensed that this continuity would not be easily broken for the bounds had changed by the formation of the one.

This was no ordinary continuity to be broken by the next phase of turmoil for the one offered it a protection.

There was no choice; things were patterned, instantly shaped into the numbering that a self-reinforcing continuity imposes.

Yet there was a dread, the horror in knowing the storm still claimed the Universe was its own. The oneness of continuity is not eternal only the zero can make that claim.

But now there was a beauty in the zone, a beauty shaped by one and minus one. The patterns of their numbers were yet to unfurl but they were there. The Universe had begun and in it there was the material, the one and its counterpart the non material.

I knew I would return; I wanted more; I needed to see what the eye would yield, to follow its vision and know the path the Universe took in becoming what I once mistakenly thought was real.

Edge of observable  UniverseI have other dreams that take me to the edge of our reality and my experiences aren't always what I had hoped when I drifted into sleep.

Like the time I went to the edge of the Universe.  My diary written after my return to wakefulness often has a strange quality but despite that my report on that journey sums up the reasons why I continue to go.

I began with "Well I'm here and I'm disappointed."

The brochure had said, "Exciting! Wonderful! A once in a lifetime experience! Sit at a table at the edge of the Universe and see what lies beyond."

And I went on to write:

"There is nothing to see. I mean not even a notable blackness or a void. The sky is filled with as many stars as I saw whenever I was brave enough to go outdoors at night at home. Yes the sky is different but all the same stars are there even though changed in size and brightness.

No! That's not quite true. Some of the older stars are gone but they will return when I go home. "

I guess I've learnt something for I now know the missing stars came to an end long ago and will eventually disappear from my home sky. But I won't live long enough for that.

And there is something that offered me release during the long hours I spent in that visionary place doing nothing else but stare at the sky looking for those differences that were supposed to excite me.

It was harder to find the stars I know; those with which I am most familiar were redder smaller and in different places in the sky. That makes it hard but it was made even more difficult because there were some brighter stars that I had never seen before. And in that dream I knew these would disappear when I return home.

Now awake I am aware that many stars I see are long-gone. Their image is only history catching up with the here and now. And if I stayed long enough in this place they will disappear. But I can't of course hang around that long.

Expansion of UniverseIt is curious but never the less I have visitors during and after my journeys. I know these visitors.

They are people from the past with knowledge that relates to my experiences. And their presence is curious because they come in agitation, eager to ensure I get it right according to their own view of the Universe.

And one of them was Albert Einstein that famous mathematician and physicist whose views inspire our current times. He was most disturbed by my journey to the edge of the Universe.

Einstein : "Crazy. This dream of reality built within an impossible journey. Have you not read my work or are you just ignorant of what it means?

Me: "I apologize. My aim was to get the reader to think about the meaning your work implies."

Einstein : "Hmph! You must have known that I would be aroused by your ridiculous journey, it flirts with a truth that I missed and came to regret."

Me: "I gather you refer to the expanding Universe the evidence for which made your static-state adjustment, the cosmological constant, redundant."

Einstein :"Yes, of course, I wish I hadn't introduced it especially since it made my originally elegant general-theory much more cumbersome. But you know that because I have stated all this publicly."

Me: 'But my intent was not that. My imaginary journey was meant to show that you can't look over or beyond the edge of the Universe."

Einstein :"To coin a pun there is nothing to see."

Me: "Well, that is true but the reality is you can't see into or beyond this particular brand of nothingness."

Einstein :Yet you knew I was well aware that any blankness in the sky is unrelated to the bounds of the Universe and still you pretend tourists can be duped into going for a look."

Me: "Well, really! I think that's the least of my failings. I am certain you didn't miss the flaws in my travel plans for they make no sense within the scheme your work initiated."

Einstein :"Agreed. However I take your point. It is merely a strategy to point out that no matter from where you look the sky is full of stars and can't be sorted in any easy way."

Me: "Yes. I was really trying to present a model based on your work and to show how the sky observed relates to that.

Oh! And I was also keen to state that it is the qualities of each star that are important not their location. I wanted to emphasize that you can only see historical images of stars with most being so old that many may no longer look anything like their observable image. "

Einstein :"And in doing that you do of course echo my main arguments."

Me: "Yes. I share your view on the difficulties of relating things to location and time when one of the essential items used in measurement, light, doesn't conform to Newton's motion laws.

I was pleased that Einstein had been drawn to speak by my impractical dream of the restaurant teetering on the edge of the Universe. His being there gave me a chance to get his reaction to what I had thought in my journeys that had taken me beyond the beginning of time.

I recalled it in my mind and said "This is the zero, so small yet it holds it all".

I thought his response would be "it doesn't matter, concentrate on what is real; that is enough for me."

But then we would agree on what was there, two different classes expanding the essence of what had until then been part of chaos.

And we would agree the instant inherited part of chaos, the laws of conservation would remain.

The numbers linked to the totality of that event would be set forever as in that instant. It would remain the principal and final guide while continuity endured.

Fractal Chaos generator And both of us would know there was no choice, that everything must change driven by the differing number patterns that arise with each new phase.

And change itself was one such pattern that defined everything. It too stole its parts from the zero seeking state of chaos, splitting it neatly between matter and non-matter.

And the elements that followed would be biased by that inescapable choice.

But he didn't, perhaps unsurprisingly he challenged me: "So what took you there, faith, maths, science or just an artistic dream?"

Me: "I can't answer by a single choice but can rule out my being there in the pursuit of faith."

Einstein : "Why then do you stray from the path I set. It surely gives you all you need?"

Me: "Perhaps it is that the artistic dream is stronger in me. I recognize this same set of skills in you and greatly admire you for the way you created a view outside normal convention. And I love the way you presented it especially your models that made things like acceleration look different when an outside view was assumed."

Einstein : "But my maths backed those models. Will your dreams do the same?"

Me: "I think your maths is amazing, and it stands the test of predicting accurately things that were not already known. I hope my work can add to that stream but of course it may not stand the test of time."

Einstein : That is true. Even mine had to face that challenge. But given that your aim is noble, what is your artistic dream?

Me: To justify the evolution of concepts.

To show the logical paths by which the abstract can become real.

To go beyond the realm of the observable by using the logic of numbers combined with the newly understood phenomenon of fractal processes.

And I want to link the creation of space-time with what went before."

As I venture into a deep-most dream beyond the start of anything at all an increasing screech clatters through my head from voices wanting to be heard. And they are ancient, those that are loudest, even though outnumbered.

As I go I ask "How far am I from the root?"

Oroborous- beginnings of the worldThey reach to me from trees watered by the Gods; from ships floating on endless waters while others tear at me with searing flames. They claim they know the answer and yet I feel they don't. But there is a commonality in their claims; they know the world is real. So I search for nothing but everything at once knowing one contains the other which in turn contains the other.

Why the Ouroboros? My scream repeated in my fall through time and space.

I am confident yet in fear. If there is nothing before the Universe then I shall perish unrewarded. But that cannot be because the Universe exists. There is no origin in nothing unless that nothing has swallowed all we take as real.

I feel the anger all around this descent of mine. "Space and time are real" they call in personal despair. But I know that has to be untrue.

Phwoosh! Explosions of light, mouth stretched wide by streams of lightning. My stomach filled with viscous goo that burns away my pride. A bubble forms closing around and above me as I plunge.

Idiot! I hear them call. To think you could escape from your mortality.

Virtual time  plunge into neck of Big Bang But I knew I'd won this little battle. They had no choice but to follow me and I had seen... No ! I had sensed that timeless, spaceless place in which the Universe had begun.

This zone at the start of it all surely implies that space and time are not absolutes found in all possible systems.

And our Universe had such qualities which in turn implies Chaos could hold the Ouroboros of our being.

Spluttering I surfaced thrown out by the shattering bubble and I saw him there, slowly drowning as the vortex dragged him down. Einstein looked aghast but he needn't fear; strong arms reached out dragging him onto a bobbing raft.

But they turned their back on me disgusted by my challenge to their views. My demise would be a defensible neglect; a problem well removed.

They jeered at me yelling in disrespectful tones. Are you happy now with Chaos as your master? But there was curiosity too. How big? How fast? How deep? All manner of temporal things they asked as though my knowing the correct answer mattered.

Desperate for the shelter of that raft I shouted out terse replies. There is no space. No mass. Not even little quantities; there are none at all. The same with time; there is no such thing as time in Chaos.

Well what is there in Chaos? I heard whispered with witch-hatred tones by the yelling mob.

There is number? I shot back. How can that be if there's nothing there? came the quick reply.

It isn't true. Nothing is a different thing to not having what you seek. In chaos there are vast quantities and qualities but very few that our senses could either register or measure.

Why not? enquired the forceful whisperer.

Because there are extremes many of which lie outside the limits our own Universe can hold. But things like temperature and energy intensity do apply in Chaos.

A lower tone settled over the mob with their yells settling to a deadly low-level chant.

There is sequence too. But only where there are pockets of continuity. And in further desperation I added "And pattern, through fractals, make it possible for Chaos to spawn our Universe."

I reached the raft, a single hand stretched down.

Einstein : "What on earth's a fractal?"

Dripping with the yolk of the Universe, my legs dangling over the dark and alien abyss below I knew my answer had to be presented with caution.

Fibonacci fractal seriesI began "They are a late twenty-first century realization that the mechanical laws are not the only things that allowed the Universe to evolve.

However evidence for it comes from things well known to mankind. The Fibonacci number series with its relation to patterns in nature is one of these."

A voice dripping with skepticism called to the mob "Numbers alone can't do this. Numbers aren't able to create anything"

Another shouted "He's right. Numbers have no powers at all. These are just interesting patterns made by chance. "

I knew that my answer wouldn't be enough so I continued. "Fractals are a basis for nature's creative design. They are shapes set within any enclosure which nature tends to follow. And the shaping tool behind their existence is the pattern achieved when adding numbers."

Natures fractalsI now felt an increasing interest in my words and the pictures that I took from my pockets. It wasn't just luck that I had them with me. I had prepared them the day before to sate my grandchildren's interest in what they saw on my laptop.

Einstein stood up alongside me, facing the mob. Respectful quietness settled as he spoke.

"These are pretty ideas and up until now they offer little new. Yet they have possibility. Let him speak and I will ensure his words don't go unchallenged if he goes astray."

The mob seemed happy that such a person had taken the lead and they settled down to hear my impossible fraud exposed.

Einstein turned a little while still facing the crowd and asked me: What are the properties of number on which you base your claims?"

Warily I started my reply being well aware that Einstein was the master at challenging underlying assumptions.

"I will take my lead from you and strip away the base that gives comfort to the unthinking mind. I begin with ideas that were true at the beginning of our Universe where terms like space and time were not applicable. I go to the ideas of a dynamic system experiencing immense change since such a scheme also applies to our Universe.

To that scheme I take up things that you yourself used when moving from the defined frames for your special theory involving steady speeds to the frame required to understand your general theory involving acceleration."

Einstein : "So which parts did you assume? "

Me: "Your ideas on a less rigid type of continuity as expressed in the mapping of your generalized coordinates.

Fibonaccci series in pineapple showing continuiity attributes I noted that continuity is a concept in itself that can apply to other systems. For example it can also relate to parts of a chaos where there is neither time nor space.

And once I accepted that idea could occur in chaos I had to include the concept of duration. I did so because every continuity has an extent between its end points."

And I took an implied concept you also assumed; that of adjacency of points. This seemed reasonable since without continuous neighbors any system is only a set of isolated singularities.

But I also took your generalized ideas of sequence where the gap between layers doesn't have to be uniform since the same principle works with more generalized systems.

From this set of concepts I knew labels could be applied to different paths connecting adjacent points.

And once I recognized the capacity for sequential labels I had to grant that such a system was open to the concept of numbers since any path can be given ordered labels as successive points are passed.

So with all this  I knew I could give meaningful values to things in zones which existed before space-time. "

Einstein : "But so far you don't have anything that's real"

I pressed on knowing this wasn't a question he asked for himself but on behalf of the mob. I responded with " True. Yet it is enough when we note that all we need is the power of repetition to change the infinitely small into something real plus the natural power of addition."

Einstein who was obviously aware of the mobs askant looks towards him stated in an assertive way "There are of course issues with your definitions but they conform with ideas well known to me and others.

Even the idea of the infinitely small being used to define something real is at the heart of one of our most powerful tools, that of calculus. So proceed and show us how you think the power of repetitive addition makes it work."


Fractal Chaos generatorI began by saying "Addition is a natural process wherever there is change and singular points with powers that favor their proximity to one another.

This favored zone assumption is the essential driver for continuity, adjacency, sequence and duration. Such proximity can be called cohesion and in any form of chaos not restricted to singularities this term applies.

Cohesion that forms the duad gives us the concept we call addition. So we can deduce that addition is naturally occurring in a natural system. And I contend that we don't need any more components than those I have already given to create our Universe."

Fractals move from abstraction into nature. >A man from near the back of the mob raised his arm seeking Einstein's attention. He stood when requested and said: My name is Benoit Mandelbrot. It was me that coined the term fractal and since I did I have struggled with a way to define it. So perhaps it would help if I put forward a definition since you obviously understand its difficulty."

Another man stood up from within the mob and proclaimed, "I am Bernard Bolzano. I spent much of my life arguing for time and motion to be kept separate from mathematics so what you say resonates with me. I also put together original ideas on the topic of continuous functions. May I add my thoughts?"

I knew this man of posthumus fame, who never had the chance to know his work would became the inspiration of many. Words he once spoke come to my mind since they sum up so well the mental place I want my guests to go. "Even in the realm of things which do not claim actuality, and do not even claim possibility, there exist beyond dispute sets which are infinite."

I responded, "Thank you for your offers however as much as I value your contribution my main concern is to bring the ideas together in a way that achieves my personal goals. I want to merge the abstract but beautiful analyses in maths people like each of you have made with the practical mechanics of building a Universe.

I am proposing that fractals are not just mathematical ideas that reflect nature but they form one of the building blocks usable from the very first parts of the Universe's formation. I want to start with the basis of number and show fractals then result without other intervention in any environment. They become the ever-present factor behind the creative designs that follow."

Einstein added: "However,I will keep you in mind and invite you to join me in ensuring he keeps to the logical methods to which we are accustomed.

Inwardly I smiled but left my thoughts unvoiced "Surely Einstein's words are pointless, any errors they claim I make will be part of my fantasy as will be any challenge."

Concept ceries based on number 3 (Triads) I knew what I wanted to show but it was still in words that meant nothing if not backed by illustration.

So although I could have said "Fractals are the spray painting stencils of nature"  I didn't. Instead I continued on my preset path and said "I want to build a logical structure based on how points can evolve using just the assumptions I have already given."

I continued,"Two single points change the number from the singularity that represents non-continuity to a duad and this is the unit of adjacency. But if two can be so linked then there will arise occasions when another will be added by the same process."

This creates a new concept, that of a chain, which is of course a form of sequence.

And the duad is the form of the primal fractal. It is as is every fractal a pattern formed by successive additions of singular parts.

But the thing that transforms the sequence in a chain into the building blocks of a Universe is there being two or more points in that chain that are not unique for then they form another concept, that of enclosure.

Continuity tetrahedral fractal of concepts And enclosures bring about a dramatic change to chaos for with their creation comes the concept of boundaries and constraints on what can or will form within it.

It is repetition of a basic form within a defined boundary that offers us the variant forms of fractals we will observe. Given this basis it is not surprising there is such a close correlation between maths, nature and the cosmos."

An old man stood up and as he did those around him rose as one. The anger in the old man's eyes, the quivering of his hoary beard warned he wouldn't be denied. His challenge wasn't directed only to me but to Einstein as well.

 Fractals and enclosures"What have you done with my harmonies, the geometries and all that I knew to be true?" Around Aristotle and his group others began to rise. Astonishingly a few women rose unabashed by their being vastly outnumbered.  I knew the reason for their anger since they had been drawn here not by choice but by the tailwind of my fall. Scooped into my vortex the unrelenting tearing at their long-held scientific faith disturbed their well earned rest.

I had no choice. There was only one means at my call. I fled my dream waking with a shuddering jolt.



In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation, cosmological inflation, or just inflation is a theory of exponential expansion of space in the early Universe. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10−36 seconds after the conjectured Big Bang singularity to sometime between 10−33 and 10−32 seconds after the singularity. Following the inflationary period, the Universe continues to expand, but at a less rapid rate.
Wikipedia entry on expansion (cosmology)

Of course I returned to the raft that sits above the void at the beginning of the Universe but this time I was  more circumspect. I took the back stairways of history only deviating to bring those with minds capable of helping solve my problems. It is true my actions were those of a pirate short of crew, waylaying my accomplices by snares and guiles, taking them from their assured positions in order that they argue against mine. But I needed them since their works and ideas had supplied my stimuli.

It was easy to find most of them since their minds held traces of aberrant thought.

How big is 10 to the minus 33 secs? No really, I mean how small is it?

0.000000000000000000000000000000001 secs! That's crazy.

Who measured that and by what means?

And the Universe was meant to get its act together in that time? Ridiculous!

I had empathy with their problem. To give such a precise number conveys conviction rather than certainty. Why not 10 to the minus 133 or any other number? It is no wonder these people were incredulous about this zone.

One of them addressed me directly as we descended to the platform. In your dream you and Einstein plunged into the expansion space that arose from the singularity but you couldn't do that in such a short time. That's how I know you are a fraud.

The obvious retort was "It was but a dream" but I sensed it needed more than stating what she already knew. I said "I don't see it as a problem. It is the result of putting it in a time scheme, there is no issue if time doesn't apply."

An immediate tumult arose. A flurry of discontent broke out amongst my gathering crew until at last another spoke up expressing an issue causing their distress.

Lineage Tree of Evolution"You talk of continuity and suggest that time and space are not essential components for such a concept. Give us an example we can understand."

Me: "Families are a good example. They have continuity."

"But that continuity can be allotted a time", a new arrival snorted.

Me: "Yes but that's not a very useful measure. The duration of a family is better measured by the number of generations and their branches. The length of each individual life doesn't determine the duration of the complete tree.

This is a continuity based on a flexible expansion because members can be inserted at any point in a family tree at any time without breaking the continuity"

Newton then added, "Music with its scales and light with its spectrum are also continuities with a duration not based on distance or time."

I went on having complimented him on his deductions. "And of course another example is the concept of numbers whose duration is spasmodically eternal."

"Spasmodically eternal!  What does that mean?" someone else inquired.

I replied, "Numbers are found in every continuous event so it is eternal within that context. Also it begins and ends with that continuity so it is eternal in that sense as well.

As to why I call it spasmodic all continuities end and so within Chaos where there are vast numbers of continuities they rapidly come and go.

And of course that is what I think is the real story at the beginning of the Universe. Things like number and physical laws exist in perpetuity. This means their development at the start of our Universe took place regardless of there being no time or space at all.

I conclude that although the Universe's development phase is real it forms from a timeless, spaceless continuity in eternal Chaos. It is only when space and time became real that it became possible for our species to actually detect events. So we can only go back to that instant space-time began. And from this you can see why I think it is meaningless to assign that earlier phase a number related to time."

'But doesn't that make it indistinguishable from the Chaos?", a young child asked.

"No. It was a new and very different continuity. It had a new mechanism; one which made our Universe possible. It was based on the number patterns that lie behind you being alive."

"Wow!" was the child's response prompted by the confidence of my reply. But his mother said in a quiet tone. That isn't good enough, you must show how that came about."

We landed on the raft but it is misleading to call it that for now it is a platform. My dream no longer able to support the idea of a void had left a set of logs to remind me of the past.

A little saddened by this sobering sight I felt my unease pressing on my guests. "Why are you here? What do you seek? How will you quell our doubts?"

Einstein, who had followed us, immediately took up their challenge.

Einstein : "For me it is the creativity of these ideas that draws me. Besides I still need to put him right if he goes astray.

He turned to me, his face alight but bewildered, "Why do you want me here?"

Me: "You are needed. It is your work, your ideas that spurred my project."

Einstein : "Then at least tell these people what I contributed. Tell them how it came about"

Me: "Later, but what do you think of this beginning?

Einstein : "It's too shallow. You need to give more insight into what is really going on"

Me: "I intend to but I am a little lost for suitable words since terms like space and time don't yet apply."

Einstein : "I understand that. You will need to present the mechanisms you think brought about time and space if you want to proceed."

Me: "I assume you mean how space-time patterns emerged out of nowhere to become our reality."

Einstein : "Exactly, and you need to state firmly that the material and the non-material both generate consistent laws which at first may not seem to match."

Me: "I agree and I need to show what you did to unite the two. Of course that is the real reason I welcome you here, you and your theories are important."

I paused, searching my mind for the way to meet Einstein's demands. Surely I needed to go right the way back to Chaos if I was going to present my case for reality emerging from the abstract. I asked out loud so that all could hear, "So what did the Universe inherit from the chaos from which it came?"

Evolution mechanism across dicontinuity via Duad union I again paused then gave my personal view.

"The Universe received the fury of the inferno in a measurable quantity. Most important of all it received the gift of continuity. With that it also received the influence of numbers and the patterns that flowed from their combinations."

But as I have already mentioned there was a special quality bestowed upon the Universe beyond the property of continuity. And this special power was the ability to overcome discontinuity. We know this had to be there from the start because without it we and the Universe wouldn't be here.

Robert Boyle : "May I join the two of you. I feel your thoughts can be enriched by mine."

 "You are welcome" I said while looking to Einstein for affirmation. "What is the point you wish to raise".

Boyle: "My experiments on expansion hint at what must happen. Changes of state change the patterns and we see it happen all around us.  Things go along without change and then, suddenly, new patterns form as though out of nowhere. However what they become was always there in a hidden pattern awaiting an environmental trigger."

Me: "Yes your contribution is appreciated. I was thinking of a way to present a similar idea. I was going to use crystal formation in rocks to illustrate the process."

Boyle : "Respectfully there is a simpler way to show it. I would let people feel the idea for themselves. Tell them to form a small hole with their lips and blow upon their hand then open wider and do the same again. Now get them to do it by breathing on a mirror. By this little test they will sense the changes and yet know it is the same sort of air from the same source."

Change of state / phaseMe, "I love your example and it contains an aspect that is at the heart of my journey. When you breathe out onto the mirror the idea of moisture being present is an abstract one and not apparent at all. But a change of phase invoked by a cool mirror makes the moisture appear from what seems like nowhere."

Einstein : "Robert's point is well made but I must emphasize at the beginning of the Universe the change of state was not about space, time, temperature or things we know. This makes it difficult enough without trying to go back to a stage of Chaos."

Me: "But I want to stress that of those things inherited by the Universe an inheritable discontinuity-breakout component is  essential."

Boyle : "Wait a moment. Before you go further I need help with something you said earlier. If things common to our lives like time and space aren't present in Chaos how do the two of you define continuity in that setting?"

Me: "Sequences! It is reasonable to assume there will be things that can be grouped in a recognizable order."

Einstein : "Yes sequences and they can be numbered using any properties that are shared. It is by these that humans recognize their reality. In my work I talked about humans falling into a local trap since they are unused to dealing with very big or very small systems.

Boyle :"How can that be so?"

Me: "Our senses can deceive us. We start with ones that were shaped by local events, our eyes, our ears etc. These are products of life, designed to help us survive and they do, but their usefulness often leads us to believe all the Universe fits to this model."

Einstein : "Yes the Universe is not restricted to our idea of local. Robert I know that in your time men thought there was a limit to smallness and bigness but more recent experiments have shown that view to be wrong. Not just slightly wrong but radically so."

Me: "And yet the laws of the local that you so admired are still valid.  Robert, what science has found in the years between you and modern times is that these still valid laws are not enough to explain it all."

AW continuity cell Boyle : "So if I understand you correctly  the start of the Universe is a state of continuity holding pattern changes that aren't based on time or space."

Me: "Yes, But one that contained a special pattern, a duadic cell capable of forming fractals that can be passed beyond discontinuities and bounds."

Boyle : "So if I understand you right it's like the process of life where living things will interact and produce offspring that inherit some of each of their parent's qualities."

Einstein : "Yes! And an important thing for this process is the near infinite pool from which these parents are drawn. Of course it isn't really an infinite pool but the bigger the better. And given a big enough mixing bowl in which a patterning mechanism such as fractals can do its work there is a high chance a new generation will emerge that passes normal boundaries."

Me: And this process is very special in one sense because one property that is always passed must be the ability to do the same again. Then each part of the Duad will hold that property and pass it on to each member of the next generation. I believe that is what took our system from an isolated continuity in Chaos into a concept as big and singular as our Universe."

Einstein : "OK, so this ability to pass on the reproduction property has a special legacy but not so special that other Universes of a different form could be ruled out."

Me: Yes and I would add one other thing. I believe this union and distribution mechanism means the evolutionary cell brings with it a concept that we call conservation."

Einstein : "So in your terms not only is this inheritable mechanism the means of future regeneration but the source of our Conservation Laws."

Charles Darwin had become increasingly agitated and at this juncture had the opportunity to be heard.

"A lot of your talk has involved the way life evolves and yet you are using it for the mechanical Universe as well. I'm unhappy with that jump, surely the two things don't use the same means."

Fractal patterns forming reality from abstract sources. Isaac Newton joined Darwin's dissent "I too am unhappy with the connections you make but my issue  is with the suggestion that concepts evolve.

And add to that my reservations that all three, life, the physical Universe and your pattern ideas share a common path that nurtures an abstraction until it can become a reality."

Me: "Both of you are right that is what I am suggesting, reality has its origins in something that has evolved and draws its resources from the past.

The process behind each is not a figment of a dream. It is the same process of changing phase that forms clouds in clear skies.

And time and space at the beginning of the Universe were also abstractions. This is their logical status which the time of ten to minus thirty three seconds for that period tries to obscure."

Your concerns are no surprise to me since I think humankind has ignored the mystery of concepts. I believe I can offer  clear evidence of this. I will do so through example using a few of the many things that we now take for granted. But much of that will come later. For now I will merely raise a few that may help you see where I intend to take you.

 Awareness and memory for example are not natural components of the Universe and in the distant past didn't exist at all. But they did emerge as the Universe's phases unfolded and they have changed their form ever since.


The Tetrahedron as the Universe's primal fractal.

My mind dwelt on the evolution of numbers just for a moment to make sure I held the frame they provided.

The zero occupies a special place in number theory.

The monad occupies a special place in Creation theory.

The duad occupies a special place in Evolution theory.

The triad also has a special place. It is the first of the series which can form an enclosure.

Concept Creation from continuity The tetrahedron is the next within this evolving series. A special place within Geometric number theory is bestowed on it because four is the first of the numbers that allows a 3D space to be enclosed.

And I know anyone can make such a shape easily.

By taking an equal sided triangle cut out of paper or cardboard midpoints can be marked out on each of the three sides. Lines can then be drawn joining each midpoint. When folded along these lines until they meet a tetrahedron will be formed.

This an easy process for us and also for nature which has access to a large pool of resources on which the process of addition can work.

The ease of the process leads to the tetrahedron being the primal fractal pattern in the evolution of the spatial properties of our Universe. Its shape provides a frame for concepts such as distance, area and volume.

It also provides the frame we use for setting location via coordinates and time.

These connections make it nature's starting frame for space-time, motion and the other components that emerged as the Universe began.

Powerful designs at Nature's call.

Having rebuilt the ideas I had in the foremost part of my mind I felt ready to address my guests' concerns.

First I spoke briefly to both Darwin and Newton saying I understood what worried them but their work and theories weren't under threat.

And Einstein supported me by saying. "My work offered the same threat but what made it acceptable were two things. Firstly the robust work of Newton and others before me was not destroyed. It was incorporated into a bigger scheme. And secondly this new framework offered a frame for resolving problems that ongoing investigation into the nature of the Universe had exposed."

I added, "And Darwin the same applies to your famous work. My new frame which suggests concepts evolve owes a lot to you and I am grateful for what I learnt from your ideas.

As to the fractal component of my current model it comes from a new field of study. I believe this is an ancient mechanism overlooked by mankind until now but it has been ever present.  It is this source that gives nature a constant reservoir of powerful designs that complement your work on selection.

At no point does my model imply that your ideas on the survival mechanism are wrong. I will try to show this in greater detail at a later stage but until then I hope my awareness of the issues you raise will allay your concerns."

Darwin responded with, "Yes I was a little concerned but it was frustration more than anger that caused me to speak my mind. I came with you in this ridiculous dream expecting more from being on the edge of the Universe as it began but it failed to deliver. That was what really upset me."

He continued "There is no doubt the beginning is spectacular and I looked in awe as existence happened before my eyes but I couldn't find what I was looking for."

"And what was that?" asked Einstein.

"Albert, I could see many things you talked about on our descent but I expected I would see things like positrons and electrons as well as space itself taking shape.

And I expected there to be imperfection and stages in-between but there was none of that, it came out complete and ready to go to work as the Universe we know. Surely this dream is flawed."

I was surprised to hear this. I didn't want to challenge this great man's view but I had no real choice. I needed him on side. "Charles", I said "It is the size of it all that leads us to expect more of the Universe but the beginning is like any other change of phase. Clouds for instance come into clear skies and when they come they are completely clouds, nothing more nor less."

Aristotle had been silent on this journey until now but Darwin's observations drew him out, "Darwin was right, the components were all there and I couldn't help thinking as it happened about the majesty of time and space.

According to you they didn't exist in the earliest phase but since their creation was such a massive act it surely needed time, a vast amount of it, to assemble just those two features.

This contradiction in time needed to create time is something I can't get my head around."

Beginning of the UniverseMe: "Your dilemma is appreciated. It is common to all mankind. We can't easily conceive of the infinitely big or the infinitely small or events that might take place in such realms.

So we take a lot it for granted. We assume the basics of our Universe's existence must be a fundamental property of any system. This is particularly true of time and space for they are what all people have known; they are the cornerstones of our Universe.

That is what makes it seem shocking when we first try to see it as having evolved from a more ancient setting. It is much easier for mankind to believe time and space have always been there but less easy to accept that what came  first was typical of a phase change not an explosive creation.

And although time and space are what defines this particular Universe of ours it doesn't mean that it's the only possibility.

There may be other universes with some other means of bringing about extension of continuities and this in some weird way is easier for people to accept. Yet we find it hard to apply a timeless phase to models of our Universe's formation."

Einstein : "I think anyone who knows my work at all will know that I am not one held back by traditional viewpoints yet I have reservations too.

I have noted your suggestion that the first phase of the Universe is timeless. I have understood what you imply when you say that time is one of the definitive creations that happened with the start of the physical Universe.

I also appreciate your comments on the miniscule time science claims for the first phase of the Universe and I acknowledge it is a rather questionable value.

However I think you have failed to point out it is done to achieve a similar end to your own. Scientists use that means to show what must have developed in the Universe's earliest phase and to identify what its legacy was."

Me: I take your point however I differ in my emphases. I see the initial phase as an eternal instant, a sequence with the property of continuous adjacency which has no time or space involved. I feel that to give it any time at all deprives us of looking at the mechanics of its creation.

In my scheme inherited sequences offer their own possibilities and constraints which are bypassed when we assign an imagined time to that first phase.

 However by the recognition of its instantaneous character we open up a setting where all possibilities evolve at once and hence there will exist internal order related to intrinsic fractal patterns.

In my setting the initial phase never had time but there is eternity of form. There is an infinite array of patterns and there was one that suited the formation of our Universe. It was there eternally ready for a trigger that ultimately came. And I believe it cannot but be so."

Someone muttered, "You get what you get and you don't get upset" without much conviction so I let this pass without comment.

I continued: "Our Universe could only come into creation through events that took place in that timeless phase and from that circumstance came a perfect creation. Again it couldn't but be so.

We can also know through what we have observed in modern times that the space-time duad didn't come as a component in a Meccano or Lego set, to be assembled bit by bit. Time and space, mass and energy, motion and expansion, particles and anti-particles, these all came as a fully assembled scale model."

A person unknown to me moved to the front and asked, "But why do you bother with how it all began? Why not just enjoy it for what it is like most people do?"

Others countered with "It isn't true! The people have always been interested in how this Universe began but some choose to be listeners rather than questioners."

I didn't reply because a chorus of voices did this for me. In essence they said "We humans are lucky for we are a part of creation that has a well developed sense of awareness and it is that gift that shapes our interest.

And those of us drawn to understanding the Universe in which we live try to use what was created at the beginning to enlighten us about its origin and our future."

I followed up their line of reasoning glad to escape the attempt to waylay my theme.  "And the Universe inherited all its properties. It is that legacy trail I follow with continuity being the constant driver of the stream."

My work is new, I was aware of that so I was happy to let the dissent run its course.  I also knew I couldn't answer the challenges it brings to those whose lives are committed to an established view, I could have tried but it is unlikely I would succeed. However there are people with different views which is the reason I had sought a mix of views amongst my guests. 

 I let all these thoughts come to the fore then waited for a pause. "It is the special duad, able to by-pass discontinuities, that transforms continuity. This is the engineer of the Universe but it is a mechanism that also evolved."



My next encounter with my guests had a peculiar beginning, undoubtedly triggered by my thoughts on the nature of electromagnetic-waves.

On meeting again with Isaac Newton and Robert Boyle, both people from the seventeenth century, I sought to interest them in the topic by showing them my laptop. They looked at it and moved away. I said, "its alright! This is only an image and the device is made from glass and rock."

Newton was in awe. "How do you get away with it. In my time you were likely to end up dead if you claimed such things."

Robert: "Unless of course you were made a Saint."

I could tell by his tone that despite his doubts he was becoming agitated, eager to get onto things that he had never known.

However he had more to say, "I gather from our past talks that modern evidence shows matter has a twin in electromagnetic waves. I can accept that somewhat disturbing twinning idea but then I ask myself what did both receive? Was it equally split? Was there anything new?"

Components of Universe Me: "My response to the last question is yes, every split has the potential to generate the new but its form is shaped by the conservation laws."

Einstein : "Robert these ideas are based on my well-known work.  I can tell you the answer to the second part is no, the split was nowhere near equal."

I added, "I would go further and say some things were kept totally by one while the other inherited a variant.

So EMWs have the inherited properties of instant eternity as their duration component but they do not have a determinable presence. We can't see them in any vacuum only when they encounter matter. Whenever they do we can deduce things about the whole wave front and this means we are always tracking a ghost.

"A GHOST!" someone snorted in querulous fury.

"A ghost." I said "Something that we cannot see but has its origins in events from the past".

I could see the concern in many eyes. Ghosts! I shouldn't have used that term. It obviously reminded them of my deception.

They had come of their own accord, trusting me, not caring that I was an unknown.

I had challenged them with my claim "I will release you from the great unknown that haunts you from the past"

Oh how I regret that claim. It had far too much overreach. I had been too eager to have them come and be my critics.

I closed my eyes. I needed help. I drew a deep breath knowing I needed to give a focal point to justify their being here.

I picked up the thread I had commenced but prefaced it with "The realm of EMWs is timeless, if you work that through the problems of light will disappear."

Light's properties , as you already know, are in stark contrast with matter when it comes to location. Matter has a finite local space tied into a finite or local time. And ironically it can be seen whenever it interacts with EMWs."

I paused and then at a slow and deliberate pace softly said "This means the non-matter or electro-magnetic radiance kept all the properties of instantaneous regeneration that were apparent at the starting of the Universe and matter took on the properties of newly formed space-time."

I had their full attention once again.

Boyle : "Is that all they received? Can you be a bit more specific?"

Me: "Of course I can but there is so much it should be given to you in a manner you can absorb."

Boyle : "You're putting me off when what I want is a starting point for thought. Please give me an example that will help me see what other things were transferred to each part."

"Me: "Well, matter for instance took up a lot of the brute force that Chaos passed on to the first phase while radiation-forms became bridges between the old and the new.

Einstein then turned to me and said, "I hope you can make it clearer for all of us. Although your ideas do indeed reflect mine you are putting it in a way other scientists would hesitate to do.

And your fractal model for instance seems too self-assured while your so-called bridges need more pylons and supports. Your work so far is way too shallow to be of use to me."

Me: "OK! But I feel this is the way to present these ideas. I can empathize with you in the difficulties fractals present. But the tradition of which you were part is the cause. You know your era loved the rigid frame where mathematics could reign unchallenged.

In today's world mathematics has embraced new ideas and fractals are one result of that change. Fractals deal with certainties that arise from chance.

And latent patterns in any space existing as a result of number and geometric possibilities provide a playground for chance. This transforms the options open to us when explaining nature's revolutionary advance.

However despite your doubts I'm sure you'll agree it needed me to give a model that illustrates the possibilities. That is what I've tried to do and what I will attempt to do as I proceed."

I woke next morning as the sun crept with burning rays across my bed. A thought had haunted me through the night. "It must be hard for you to know where to begin".

Those were Einstein's views expressed as we departed from the log platform at the start of the Universe. He had gone on in that earlier dream to say, "No matter what feature you choose it does injustice to the others. The Universe came as a package but for us, your guests, to understand that package we need to look at what each part brought with it.

We also need to know how they evolved from the sources in the first phase. And we need to know which parts went where and why you think these made the Universe hang together."

I had replied," Of course you're right but the task is made a little easier when  the theme of fractals is used to supply the mechanisms.

To further that understanding I will use the tetrahedron model presented earlier and expand it to the initial phase of our knowable Universe."

Einstein : "So what are the main things tyou think might interest me?"

Me: "Well I will use the assumed properties from the initial phase and show how the Universe shares them between electromagnetic waves and matter."

Einstein : "If you do that I will insist you back it with reason that relates to mass, space, time and energy for it is in these topics of mine that I fear your ideas may go awry."

Me: "I respect your fears and that is why I will spend time on the very important split from the eternal instant state of the Universe's earliest phase."

So that had been my task when I returned from that earlier dream. And this morning, filled with a cloud of thoughts, I spent time tidying up my images for my next journey. However I found myself constantly being drawn back to the parting words of my guests.

They began with words between Boyle and Einstein.

Boyle : "On our last trip Albert, you told me about the different shapes of space and pointed out there was a lot of debate over what form it takes and whether it's flat, finite or infinite and you said the debate arose from things you wrote. Doesn't that worry you?"

Einstein : "There is much dispute about the nature of space but this hides a significant truth. The debate is so active because so much more is known than in your time."

Aristotle spoke up once more, "That is always very daunting, a challenge to everything you believe, when you learn, as all of us have, how different things have been found out after our death. But upon reflection I am happy that my work too was debated vigorously. I really couldn't have asked for more."

Amidst my other guests outcries had broken out with quite loud demands for me to explain the meaning of my terms. And in some of these people's eyes I saw malice aimed directly at me.

"This is hubris! Arrogance in extreme!" Unspoken yet apparent feelings condemning every word I said.

By such means I knew my dream could betray me and turn them all against me. Of course I had to make it clear what each term meant but I needed a firmer base before it could become clear.

Fractals of Universe at start - Sierpinski Tetrahedron "Modern observations of light and all other EMWs", I began "make it evident that light begins and ends through an interaction with matter and it has no obvious existence otherwise. It is eternal since if it doesn't encounter matter it goes on forever.

I think these observations indicate we should use the term 'Duration' for such a timeless, spaceless class. This brings it into line with its usage in my treatment of the Universe's earliest phases.

If we make that assumption then the humanly observed properties of EMWs are more easily understood.

For instance we could account for its supposed speed by tying it to the expansion of the Universe; a matter which I will discuss in detail later.

And when EMWs are linked with the material Universe they do so through a minute part of each realm's properties.

It therefore happens in a tiny but finite unit of time-space that matches the energy and dimensions of a wave packet.

And this aspect enables me to account for such things as wavelength and frequency, each of which gives a fixed identity to the issuance of such a wave.

I'm sure you will all find this acceptable since it is in full accord with ancient and modern views."

There was obvious interest and some misgivings perceivable in my guests but I held the moment, their attention was mine. They wanted to hear the whole before any large attack would come.

"On the other hand the material Universe is known to have equally unique qualities.

For instance material bodies don't as a general rule expand over time. The evidence for this is clear; the Earth for example isn't getting bigger at the same rate as the Universe is expanding."

I looked at Einstein for any hint of contempt knowing I was about to trespass on his field. I continued "Material bodies have a definable location in a small part of what we term space-time. They don't spread out as light spreads out; they exist within their little zones and nowhere else.

No flare of anger. No trace of dissent. Einstein held my stare but didn't blink so I pressed on.

"And because they aren't tied to the great expansion their place in space-time can change.

It is through this means that material bodies allow the Universe's balancing act a degree of freedom not provided by light. They can move about in space-time whereas EMWs don't have this option."

Newton added: "It is kinetic motion versus that of waves."

Aspect (Δt means minute qty of time etc) EMW Matter
Duration Δt at start and end - eternal during dissemination (i.e. n/a) Δt at Energy conversion -  otherwise Integral sum of Instant points (no size)
Location Disseminated on spherical wavefront propagated from ΔSpace origin sum of ΔSpace based on Mass and Fields it contains
Motion speed of light,  expansion rate kinetic, relativistic value -Independent of expansion
EMW-Matter Interface matched ΔSpc-tme matched ΔSpc-tme
Scale of Energy Interaction photon (micro) - radiant flux (human)- mass equivalence (macro) quantum (micro) - Kinetic , Thermal (human) - Energy equivalence (macro)
Identity set by Energy interchange in ΔSpc-Tme giving frequency and wavelength  Location, Mass, Density, Fields, distinctive attributes such as charge, spin etc.
Energy attributes photons (packages), frequency Bound (Captured mass-energy of matter formation), kinetic, latent (fields),

Once more I slowed my words in order to focus on a critical point they already knew. 

"And I will argue the concept of motion is essentially twofold with a unique mode for each realm; EMW and material.

This quality is manifested in another Duadic fractal. In this instance one half is an expansion mode and the other a much more liberated property in space-time.

Newton interjected "And obviously you match these ideas through continuity and conservation?"

I agreed and added "I would suggest each feature of the Universe has only these two types of motion available to it, that is expansion of space or kinetic movement.

Twin realms of matter and EMW's Such a distinctive split for each realm is also true for duration.

 EMWs have eternal duration while that of material relates to the flow of instants. 

It is by this reasoning that I conclude time exists as a reality only in the material world. That reality means it can be measured by the sum of instants in any continuous sequence.

But the creation tie between space and time implies distance also has measurable reality in this same realm.

Robert Boyle, seemingly pleased with his grasp of these ideas, was the first to comment, "So light is stuck with the legacy of an old profile while matter gets the benefit of the new."

Einstein's response was much more constructive, "Your model could possibly work the way you set out but it would require 'expansion' to take a central role in the creation of the Universe. Is that how you see it?"

Isaac Newton made an opening for me to follow. "Expansion of the Universe must have come as a bit of a surprise since I knew nothing of such a possibility. There were no legends or faiths hinting at it and there was nothing that anyone I knew had ever seen that suggested such a thing was happening."

Me: "And I know you had a very different view on this from my reading of your work on gravity. You had the dilemma that gravity was only ever an attractive force and logically this meant the Universe should be contracting."

Newton : "You're right. It was a perplexing dilemma that I never did resolve so I'm very interested in this discussion."

Boyle added, "Yes! And from what I gather even today with so many wonderful machines you cannot find any matter that travels as fast as light."

Me: "No you are absolutely right but Edwin Hubble can tell you better than I why we believe the Universe is expanding."

Edwin Hubble: "In brief it is because of analyses made at my observatory in the years before 1929 where I found the identity of stars in very distant galaxies were undergoing a shift. They were redder than were the benchmark stars in closer galaxies.

This wasn't normal. To resolve it I proposed it could only be that these stars were moving away from the Earth. "

Einstein came in at this point: "And from this it was possible for us to conclude these galaxies were accelerating which in turn meant the base position had to be the Universe was expanding and it could not be static or contracting."

Me: "Which brings me to another aspect you raised earlier; I need to set out how expansion might happen.

But first I should note that I think of it as an accelerating expansion for the reasons given by Hubble; however the motion of all the stars for a great distance from us is affected by a constant rate of expansion."

Einstein added: "And the acceleration component implies it didn't get the expansion properties it has from an explosion or Big Bang at the beginning of the Universe.

In fact we'd see something different to what we currently observe in the distant galaxies. We'd be able to see some stars becoming redder than stars of equivalent type but others would be becoming bluer."

Me: "Yes, so we have an ongoing expansive action and any explanation I give must address this fact.

Einstein : "I agree this is important, it is exactly what I wanted you to do.

I think you need to follow the line of your earlier model and tell us which possibility you are going to use in this new phase."

Me: "Well the starting point is easy. Expansion is the insertion of a new point between two adjacent cohesive points.

The question is whether this is done uniformly at the same moment to all existing points or is a random generation process taking place at different instances and random locations throughout the Universe."

Einstein : "Exactly, that is the distinction that I see as being important. So which of these options do you think best fits to your model?"

Me: "Well as much as I might prefer, for the sake of simplicity, the steady-state mode I think evidence from nature points to the random generator."

"How so?" asked Boyle.

Me: "Robert, like many gathered here you won't be familiar with the properties of radioactive bodies. These give off what appears to be a constant rate of radiation but in reality this smoothness is just the statistical result of random events at random times throughout the material.

And since statistical style generation is at the heart of fractal patterns in nature it has to be my preferred mode."

I felt pleased with this analogy. After all Marie Curie was watching. Those sad eyes damaged along with her body by her dedication to the study of radiation, reached into my mind. I knew she would find what she sought, evidence I had absorbed her words, "We should not allow it to be believed that all scientific progress can be reduced to mechanisms, machines, gearings, even though such machinery also has its beauty.

I had chosen radiation as my example without thought of its cruel capability. For me it was a machine, a mechanism for showing constancy but its brilliance and beauty disguise its harm.

I ached in empathy to her agony but was grateful she was present. She was an inspiring person; one of many who gives me strength to take these ideas of mine to her and her peers.

Einstein : "Although I commend your consistency I foresee many difficulties ahead if you follow that path."

Me: "Why so?" I asked, somewhat mimicking Boyle's questioning style.

Einstein :"Because of light. It has always been a problem child of science. You will have to address the issues of diffraction, refraction and much more."

Me: "I will do that but first I need to mention a few factors that are crucial to my model.

Timeline of expanding UniverseOne major feature in our modern understanding of the history of the Universe is the accelerating expansion of its dimensions.

The standard model identifies an accelerating rate of expansion and ties it to the move from a period of dominance by dark matter into one dominated by dark energy.

My model embraces the same observations but it labels these events as phase changes activated by a trigger.  

Einstein : "Is that all you've got to support your random point expansion model?"

Me: "There is another aspect that seems to me to be quite telling. It relates to the relationship between expansion of the Universe and EMWs.

The Universe's expansion and EMW propagation, unlike matter, come from the same aspect in the earlier phases. As stated earlier their dimension lies outside space-time.

Einstein : "How can that be, surely expansion involves both space and time?"

"Not in every case." I replied, aware he was deliberately testing me, "Again using the example of numbers you can have expansion of a series by insertion that only involves a ranking or layering. This doesn't have to be time or space based. The branches of a family and the genetic sequence in the chromosome both are examples that don't rely on either concept.

Newton, looking a little perplexed, added to the queries "Am I right? Are you suggesting EMWs and the expansion of the Universe form a distinct package? If so there must be other mechanisms that bind them or else the Conservation Laws wouldn't hold."

Me: "Exactly! It is why I earlier talked of there being a complete package. As you rightly assume there are still several important parts to examine including those dealing with the peculiar properties of matter."

Einstein : "Increasingly I can see your ideas have been shaped from mine. This puts me a little at ease but I am still not comfortable with your conclusions about the Universe's expansion having a spaceless origin.

You have a lot to do before I understand how this and other elements of the formative package comply with current knowledge and thinking."

Aspect EMW Universe Expansion
Duration relative time timeless
Location spaceless relative location
Creative Action random emission of photons random insertion of points
Quantity  Energy / photon packet size Increase in Uni Size  / (Δpt in Space)


"Matter was made the Master of the Universe" I mused as I gathered my thoughts for the next stage. But I didn't say this to my guests. Instead I began by saying "Matter shaped space. Space shaped matter and the EMWs tagged along."

Their eyes lit up. My sudden change of topic suited them. These were topics with which all living things are familiar. "You don't see the world except through matter" I said, pleased to see approval in Einstein's eyes."

So far no verbal response for they knew what I meant. Like me, they hear through physical ears, they see through well-built eyes, they feel and smell and it is by matter that our material brains work out what is going on in the world.

I started this way to emphasize to my guests the special treatment matter received when the physical Universe began. Although the EMWs had undergone slight shifts in their inheritance it was material things that gained the bits with most newness.

EMWs had been held back by the spaceless, timeless part of its inheritance but material things gained space-time and mass-energy and charge plus all the dual pairings that make the complete package work.

Einsteins theories on space time energy And while the EMWs retained the spaceless, timeless essence of the initial phase they had to keep an interface with matter. The conversion equivalence for these two realms is critical to this interface. And relativistic measures for space and time provide the mechanics by which it happens.

Einstein, I recognize relativity as one of your many great contributions to our understanding of their interaction.

Einstein nodded and added "We are in agreement that  EMWs' interaction with bodies is the sole way we know they exist; it is our only window by which we can measure their identity."

 I continued "But matter's claim to fame is the way it changed the Energy content that it inherited. It massaged it into mass and other material forms but couldn't do so without all the dressings that came with that Herculean effort.

Don't get me wrong, it wasn't an act of choice, but a simple change of phase. And it was triggered by the formation of the discontinuity breakout mechanism. This breakout had to happen else we wouldn't be here discussing the Universe.

Most combinations would have led nowhere but some might have led to another style Universe. Whether or not that possibility came to fruition we don't know but we do know our Universe exists. And that took place despite the odds for or against it being here at all.

It doesn't matter if it was luck or chance because we are here; mankind testifies to the Universe's viability.

Einstein : "I now see how your model attempts to resolve the timeless, spaceless conundrum that I thought might bring your model crashing down. But it still leaves many things unanswered. For a start how does your EMW world have a relativistic link to the real world aspects of space-time?"

Me: "Through its interaction with matter within limited amounts of space-time. Importantly their interaction only occurs when the Energy properties of this discrete zone match those of the EMW. This then sees the end of that EMW but it may emerge from it in a new EMW form or even as a minute piece of matter.

The Package from the start of the Universe.

But the package from the start of the Universe had to work with EMWs in it since neither EMWs nor material things could exist unless they came as a single working scheme. These two, EMWs and material things were a Duad and they were created together. This distinctive pairing was instantly followed by a simultaneous sequence of fractal duads that delivered us our Universe.

Space-Time fractal with length, area, volume, time dimensions Albert, in your theories you stressed the role  measurement methods for time and location played.

You also carefully drew attention to the start and end of the EMW and emphasized it is different for the EMW than for any material body. 

That difference places EMWs' passage within the invisible vacuum of the material Universe. And its remnant trail is what we define as spatial inflation."

Einstein : "I would have put it differently but in essence that is what I did."

"Wow! That's way too hard to take in without some help. How can the realms of EMW and matter experience different things?" asked Boyle.

"It begins with the impact the formative package has when creating space-time around matter. "

Boyle : "I can understand that. It is a conservation issue."

I continued "In order to form mass, space-time had to be torn free of the expansion process. It also had to be in regions where no random insertion of remnant points was taking place.

Mass formed via a collective of new duads of which real space-time was  one. But there were also numerous fundamental particles which provide the mechanics.

It is all these complementary components created at the one time that provide the ingredients needed to hold matter in a form that is free of the expansion.

And the time at which each and every bit of this package had to work together was the instant of the Universe's formation."

Boyle: "So I gather there is a lot more to this than a simple creative act can deliver."

Einstein : "Exactly and although this new fractal model has possibility it still hasn't convinced me it can cover it all. However I do know that even science in the present day is struggling with these same issues."

I made no response for to do so would have broken the flow. I wanted to move on.

What spurred me at that moment was fear, a fear that I couldn't reach that goal. Or worse, that I had missed an obvious flaw.

So I continued cautiously, "Within that newly formed space-time, matter was concentrated into what were the first observable objects in the Universe. "

I paused then stressed "But it did so at a cost. The agencies that bring about the conversion of Energy into large bodies of mass distorted the space-time platform."

"So you are saying that space-time is a product of the Universe's creation and that event also distorted space and time as it was born." said Newton.

Einstein added, "And you are using my work on Gravitation and its impact on space-time to illustrate the mechanisms you think were in play when the Universe began."

Einstein Newtonian relativity difference Me: "Yes in both cases! But I need to complete it by saying that the expansion of the Universe affects any calculation. 

EMWs are tied into the space-time fabric at the instants of its creation and demise. An emission event sets it on its way and its interaction with matter at different points in space-time sees it finish its journey.

But in between those events the Universe's expansion mechanism changes the measurable space. 

Einstein : "At last I see what you're trying to do and why I find it so twisted. My theories came from the point of view of a current day observer and address the corrections that one has to make because of the way we measure things. While you on the other hand are trying to illustrate what it might have looked like if you could do the impossible and go back in time and see it unfold."

Me: "True! And in the process I am trying to resolve how this view of mine can be reconciled with your conclusions.

But of course there is another purpose in my work. I want to have people focus on the idea that concepts evolve. Doing this makes it much easier to explain space and time; like both awareness and memory they are now a reality but this wasn't always the case.

There is a danger too if they are just assumed since it can bring about exactly the opposite to your approach. Assumptions made by observers will tend to favor their personal view but may not be the best measure of reality."

My guests now come willingly to my mind. I can't be sure whether it's my desire that draws them or their free choice but they are very welcome. Their arrival starts whenever my mind settles on this fractal task and it did so today as I prepared my presentation on electro-magnetic waves.

It is as though there is a basic need for them to vet my work, examine it and make it take a better form. Of course this doesn't mean that it will come out 'right' but it does offer me some comfort.

Einstein: At last!

Boyle: "I too have been waiting. I have a question from earlier on. Does your discontinuity breakout mechanism of evolution imply each of the parent pair transforms into an expansion of itself?"

Me: "Yes with the new pairs produced taking up all the properties of the parent pair. Each also inherits the continuity factor. This process is very relevant to the topic of light which I know Einstein has a special interest in."

Newton: "Me too. My work on light was one of the things that I was proud of so I will be keen to see what more is known in your time." He saw a look of bemusement on several faces so he added "Yes I know my particle theory was discredited but I still believe I was right."

Me: "I think you should ask Einstein more about that. You will get a pleasant surprise since today we now see light as having both wave and particle properties."

Einstein mumbled: "Problems! It always seems to go back to that with light."

Me" "OK! I think I should begin with the points on which we all agree. For the benefit of those who aren't already aware of them it would help if those who know most pass on when and how that understanding came about.

Albert, I would appreciate if you and Hubble would act as judges as to each point's acceptance by the science community of today."

Einstein : "Obviously we start with the Universe's expansion and that has been widely accepted since 1929."

Redshift of distant galaxies identity spectrum Hubble: "Yes but my work at that time was concentrating on the fact that the rate of expansion had an acceleration spurt as the Universe aged."

Me: "So we will take all that as a given at this stage.

And I want to add to that the idea that light has only one speed and that it is the maximum speed either EMW or material based bodies can achieve."

Einstein : "Yes. It was my own conviction of these ideas that led me to postulate my Relativity Theories. But I went further than your statement; I showed how nigh impossible it is for anything but tiny particles to get anywhere close to the speed of an EMW."

Newton: "Albert, I think it is important to add something you told me of how this view came about."

Einstein : "It was failure that led me there. Not mine but the failure of many experiments conducted by trustworthy people to measure a different speed when your laws, Newton, suggested that they should have detected a difference."

Me: "At this point I want to move on since these ideas provide a base of agreement from which I can present my case.

And your last point also helps because it takes me back to you saying 'light is the problem child of the Universe."

Einstein with a snort and a glare responded "I think if you look back you will see you inserted those words into my mouth. However I think your point is well enough accepted; throughout the centuries our understanding of light has been problematic."

Newton: "I assume one of the areas to which you refer is how its travels through a vacuum, this in a different form was certainly a concern of my times. But it surprises me that it's still a cause for concern."

Me: "This is the issue I want to now address. Albert, rather than killing off my model I believe this topic can justify its use. And more than that I believe in explaining one aspect I explain another; I can offer a mechanism that embraces the expansion of the Universe."

I start by using a few other well accepted ideas and ask you to think about their implication.

Known Properties of Light.

Light originates from a source and spreads out in a sphere at the speed of light. Now let us imagine that the Universe expands at a uniform rate around that point. I am certain it doesn't but the idea is easy to grasp in this form."

Now we might expect that if this were the case then between the point and the outer edge of the sphere there would be traces of the light. But we don't find any so we can confirm something already well known; light's wave propagation properties are confined to the surface of a sphere.

Newton interjected. "Perhaps you should add that all of us make a common assumption about that sphere because we usually only see a small part of it. And that part is only defined when it interacts with matter."

Me: "A useful point. As any interaction is terminal it implies, rightly, that light must start its journey from a point that is adjacent to space. It can't start inside matter.

Hence it's a phenomenon restricted to the surface of a sphere throughout its journey.

And that is the point of my example for we now have enough to know that light's movement would be explainable through its being tied to the surface expansion of the Universe's expansion. But logic doesn't support this.

The problem is if the speed of light were locked to the rate of expansion then we wouldn't ever see a thing even if it were up close; light could never bridge the expanding gap."

Einstein : "Well your logic holds but what is your answer? By your air of certainty I think you know the error lies in one or more of your assumptions."

Me: "I return to my earlier ideas on discontinuity, fractals and the expansion of the Universe. I do so to overcome the problems of light's travel mode which I have just presented.

The change I will make is this; only a small number of the points of space adjacent to the surface of a single point of an EMW are ever triggered and they create new points in space."

I paused to let the magnitude of my statement settle in then to stress its import I looked at Einstein and said "This means EMWs not only propagate through a vacuum but in the process create the expansion effects we observe."

Einstein: "So you are suggesting an EMW's motion is through its creation of new points in space. That would certainly give reason and connection to the expansion of the Universe. There are still unresolved issues but I can see the possibility to which finer detail might give acceptable answers."

Me: "Yes that is my suggestion. I see expansion of the Universe and EMW propagation as two different forms of continuity and yet they must be bound by the conservation laws.

This law determines the shared properties seen in the material realm in which we humans live."

Einstein : "You are drawing near to where I began my thinking, that light is different, it has different laws but it must also fit into the laws known to apply in the worldly scheme of humankind."

Me: "Yes, your theories brought me here to see how they could generate the Universe in accord with modern human awareness. There are various models we can pursue but I think the one with most promise is that which uses an evolution mechanism for bypassing discontinuities."

Newton: I think there is a good reason for you to do that.  And I say that because I think it can open up new approaches to known problems."

EMW propagation and Space expansion mechanism Einstein : "I agree but this duad model requires there to be a pair.

I would suggest that if the model is to work propagation of EMWs would have to be from  random points on the adjacent surface."

Newton: "Although it goes against the grain I think the wave models of Francisco Grimaldi might be appropriate."

Einstein : "But update that reference a bit to a few years beyond Isaac's time and apply Christiaan Huygen's idea of resonant waves. "

I heard their words but I knew Huygens and Grimaldi were pragmatic men who although they gave the world a means to classify light and draw its paths didn't propose a mechanism. I couldn't say I didn't need their help for that would be churlish. In fact their models were my starting point and gave my own work credibility.

Me: "Of course pairing random points is the route I favor. After all the resonant patterns of Huygen's principle provide a foundation for my model enabling me to use the ideas I have presented before.

It is nature's own designs generated by mathematics and chance alone that forms the basis of all my models.

Einstein : "I must admit this is logically framed with the laudable quality it offers testable situations which mathematicians can help define."

Me: "I respect that thought for I know that was what your own work demanded."

Einstein : "Hmph! Remember it doesn't please me that you put words into my mouth knowing I have no way to give another view."

But now a panorama of emotion reflected in his face. At first surprised, then increasing flushes of excitement which flowed into a final glance directed at me; irony held in great pleasure.

"You know you haven't nailed it. You've missed your coup de grace. But we all did, we too had the final bit that makes your model work."

"What have I missed?" I asked.

"Your duad model resonates with what we called particle-wave duality. I helped form those ideas and one thing I said at that time will give you your clue.

'It seems as though we must use sometimes the one theory and sometimes the other, while at times we may use either. We are faced with a new kind of difficulty. We have two contradictory pictures of reality; separately neither of them fully explains the phenomena of light, but together they do.'

Eagerly I grasped my missed chance. "Of course, under my model light exists in a timeless, spaceless sense well suited to a wave but it also has an existence in space-time where it takes on material properties'.

Huygens Principle for light propagation "You are right! I can use my fractal for crossing a discontinuity since EMWs are the combination of two different concepts; wave and particle.

And the discontinuity it faces is obvious; it's the interface between the two different realms which it must cross time and again.

It must do this since we know it has a presence in the material realm as well as its own."

Einstein : "And propagation will work since the EMW is creating new tiny bits of space into which it transfers all its properties. It will also leave a legacy; the trail  behind it becomes new bits of space that expand the Universe."

 Newton, who was delighted at these developments added more and in so doing gave silent recognition to the bit he had until now denied.

 "These new bits act as loci not repositories; they are like the filaments of a spiders web giving a transport route covering an area. Through the newly formed network offered by the loci the wave properties are spread across the spherical surface. That will do it I think."

EMW mode of propagationMe: "Yes! I like it! An EMW can move using its fractal properties and the new creation trait. This builds a bridge to locations set by its wave properties. These points then can and do act as a diffuse transference machine."

Einstein : "It is an interesting but logical conclusion that light's loci only exist in new space. Which is reassuring as expansion of space is then given a relational base to the speed of light and this is open to testing."


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Allan Webber at Marino Rocks May 2016

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